Teruna Jaya (animated graphical score)

version of the animation (notes only)            study version (with annotation)

 Overview / History

In 1918 (ca.—sometime in the early 20th century), Pan Wandres choreographed the Teruna Jaya dance.

In 1952, Pan Wandres' student I Gede Manik revised the dance and composed the music as we know it.

In 1992, I Wayan Berata led musicians of STSI Denpasar (Sekolah Tinggi Seni
Indonesia—Bali's National Institute of the Arts) in a performance of the piece,
which was recorded byWayne Vitale and released on his record label (Vital Records)
on the album Music of the Gamelan Gong Kebyar, Volume 1 in 1996.

In 2021, Augustine Esterhammer-Fic, who had been working on transcriptions of
gamelan music, invited Stephen Malinowski to collaborate on an animated graphical
score, and they agreed on Teruna Jaya as a good example to work on.

During 2022-3, Esterhammer-Fic transcribed Teruna Jaya and Malinowski worked on the
graphical score based on that transcription. In October 2023, they published:

  • a pristine version with just the notes
  • a study version with measure numbers, section numbers, and staff lines
  • For background on what a gamelan is and how it is played, Esterhammer-Fic has produced
    this introductory video: Bali's Amazing, Interlocking Gamelan Music

    Below (on this page) you'll find:

  • a brief description of the Instruments and a key to the colors/symbols used in the animations
  • a set of Tempo Maps showing the tempo changes for the ensemble and groups of instruments

  •   Transcription

    Gamelan music is not traditionally written down, and Esterhammer-Fic's transcription was tailored
    for use in this project. As a result, it hasn't been formatted to be efficiently read as music: the note
    durations are augmented 4x in order to be more precise for the animation, and the presentation of the
    percussion instruments does not follow typical transcription conventions.

    For those wishing to study Esterhammer-Fic's transcription (ca. 36,000 notes!) directly,
    this PDF contains the score (in conventional notation). Additionally, this video describes the
    transcription process in detail: TERUNA JAYA | Transcribing a Gamelan Classic to MIDI


     Descriptions and images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamelan_gong_kebyar and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamelan

      Keyed instruments

    Most instruments in kebyar are keyed metallophones, with bronze keys resting on suspended cords, over bamboo resonators.
    Gangsa instruments are played with a mallet, called a panggul gangsa. The mallet differs in hardness depending on the
    instrument and its range. The key is struck with the hammer in one hand, and damped with the finger and second knuckle
    of the other hand. The keys can be played in one of three ways:

  • Strike the key, and let resonate until sound fades.
  • Strike the key, and damp immediately prior to, or simultaneous with, the striking of the next note in the melody.
         This is especially appropriate for interlocking parts.
  • Strike while damping. This gets a dry, pitched click.

    There are typically 9-10 players in the Gangsa group, plus two apiece for Jublag, Jegogan, and Penyacah.
    Each gendered male/female pair of gangsa is also divided into two interlocking melodic parts, polos
    (mostly plays on the beat) and the sangsih (mostly plays off the beat) during kotekan, which permits
    extremely rapid, virtuosic, and complex patterns to be played.

  • Gangsa Kantilan (Kantil Polos, Kantil Sang, Kantil Up Gliss, Kantil Down Gliss)

    There are four kantilan in kebyar, two male and two female. These instruments are the highest sounding in the kebyar ensemble, with its highest note being around C7. It has ten keys, and a range of two octaves, and is played with a wooden hammer. Players often sit on the floor to play this instrument.

    Gangsa Pemade (Pemade Polos, Pemade Sang, Pemade Up Gliss, Pemade Down Gliss)

    There are also four pemade in kebyar, two male and two female. These instruments also have ten keys, a range of two octaves, and are played with a wooden mallet, but are exactly one octave lower than kantilan. Players often sit on the floor to play this instrument.

    Gangsa Ugal (Ugal, Ugal Up Gliss, Ugal Down Gliss)

    The ugal is taller than the other gangsa, and the player sits on a short stool, so as to allow the player to cue the ensemble visually with ease. The instrument also has 10 keys, with a range of two octaves, and is played with a hard wooden mallet. Its notes are an octave lower than those of the gangsa pemade. The ugals play a combination of gangsa parts and cues, melodic solos, and the underlying melody with flourishes. The first, front ugal cues and plays elements of the polos interlocking gangsa part (the part that plays more often on the beat), and if there is a second ugal, it plays elements of the sangsih part (gangsa notes more often off the beat).

    Jublag (Jublag)

    Higher in pitch than the jegog is the jublag. This instrument, like jegog, also requires long resonating bamboo tubes so is often played while sitting on a small stool. These instruments have a range of one octave, in between pemade and ugal. The keys are struck more frequently than the jegogan and usually less frequently than the ugal. This instrument is one octave above the jegogan and overlaps tones with the ugal.

    Jegogan (Jegogan)

    There are two jegogan. These instruments have a range of one octave, and are one octave below jublag. The keys are considerably larger than those of other gangsa, and are played with a large, cloth-coated, rubber-padded spherical mallet. The jegogan plays the deepest tuned notes in the ensemble, typically playing key notes in the underlying melody of a piece of music instead of every note of that melody.

    Penyacah (Penyacah)

    The Penyacah is a seven-key metallophone that is one octave higher than the jublag, and supports the main melody.

    Vertically suspended gong family

    Gongs come in different sizes, and provide a structure for phrasing for the music by repeating a four or eight beat pattern called the gong cycle.
    Gongs are mounted vertically.

    Gong gede (Gong Cycle, Gong Lanang, Gong Wadon)

    Also referred to as just gong, gong gede is the deepest, and most resonant. Gede, sometimes written gde, means 'big' in Balinese. Because it is the largest of the gongs, it is considered to be the most sacred instrument in kebyar. It is never damped, always allowed to decay. It is struck with a large, padded mallet.

    Kempur (Kempur)

    A medium-sized gong, the kempur is very similar to gong gede as it has very similar qualities, but is just higher in pitch (about an octave and a fifth higher). It is struck with a large, padded mallet.

    Klentong (Klentong)

    Also known as the kemong, this is much smaller and higher in pitch than the kempur. It is struck with a harder mallet than either the gong gede or kempur, which allows it to have a sharper attack.

    Kettle gong family

    Kettle gongs are round, bronze, and pitched. They are often mounted horizontally on suspended chords as part of a frame.
    Positioned this way, there is an opening on the bottom, slightly beveled bow on top, and a protruding center called the boss.
    They are generally played with a wooden mallet wrapped in string on one end (to soften the attack) or the end of the mallet,
    which is bare, finished wood.

    Reyong (Reong combined, Reong Pemetit, Reong Ponggang, Reong Pengenter, Reong Penyorong)

    This instrument consists of 12 kettles mounted horizontally in a row on a frame. It is played by four musicians, each taking responsibility for 2 to 4 of its kettles. The players, who sit in a row, are split into two groups, the first consisting of the first and third players in the row, and the second consisting of the second and fourth players. Both people in the same group play the same part, but doubled an octave apart. The parts of group one and of group two, when played together, are interlocking. The reyong has both melodic and non-melodic percussive roles.

    Kempli (Kempli)

    The kempli and kajar are small kettles set over cords strung on a boxlike stand. They are mainly used as tempo keeping instruments. They are usually played with a cord wrapped stick like those of the reyong and trompong. The kettle is struck on the boss while damped with the other hand to produce a sharper, dryer sound.

    Primary rhythm instruments

    Kendang (Lanang Filler, Lanang Pek, Lanang Tut, Lanang Cung, Wadon Filler, Wadon Kap, Wadon Dag, Wadon Cung)

    The kendang is a double-headed drum of jackfruit wood and cowhide. Its shape and the cinching action of hide straps creates two distinct, approximate tunings in one drum.

    Cengceng (Cengceng, Cengceng accent)

    This instrument consists of several small, overlapping cymbals tied to a frame. The player holds a pair of matching cymbals with bamboo or textile handles, striking the stationary cymbals in quick, even succession or in asymmetrical accents with kendang or reyong.

    Soft melody instruments

    Suling (Suling)

    The suling is a vertical bamboo flute. The suling section doubles and ornaments the melody; the highest register suling has the freest rein to improvise. The player circular breathes to allow the pitch to be sustained into a constant tone. A peculiar quality of Balinese suling, distinct from Sundanese suling, is a combined vibrato from irregular flexing of the jaw and working of the tongue.

      Tempo Maps

    The following graphs show the tempo of the piece. The section numbers are shown for reference;
    these correspond to the numbers given in the study version of the video and the rehearsal numbers
    given in the PDF score. The vertical dimension shows the time interval between notes: higher is
    faster/shorter, and the scale is logarithmic (so that the 2:1 rhythmic ratio is the same vertical
    distance throughout). The most common tempo (91 BPM) is marked; notes at this tempo are often
    played by the Jublag.

    The first chart shows all the instruments together; the following charts show the timings of
    individual instrument groups.





    Jublag / Jegogan




    Gong Cycle

    Klentong / Kempur